Blackjack Reports and Studies

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A great source of professional blackjack related articles, reports and studies can be found at Arnold Snyder’s Blackjack Forum Professional Gambling Library.

 

Philip Abram. The ECON Inc. Blackjack Policy Simulation Model, and an Analysis of the Elimination of the Early Surrender Rule in Atlantic City.
– Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking at the Caesars Tahoe Hotel and Casino, Oct 22-25, 1981.  Discusses the calculation of the overall win percentage in Atlantic City blackjack: The win percentage of the general public, the distribution of players, the impact of the distribution of players on the general public win percentage and a brief discussion of betting patterns.
[ 81? Rouge et Noir 10,16 ]
[ University of Nevada Archive ]

Philip Abram. The Play of the General Public in Atlantic City Blackjack.
– Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking at the Caesars Tahoe Hotel and Casino, Oct 22-25, 1981.
[ University of Nevada Archive ]

Seymour Adler. See entry under James Smither. Attributions for the Poorly…

David Aldous and Persi Diaconis. Shuffling Cards and Stopping Times. American Mathematical Monthly; May, 1986 (pp. 333-348)
Thumbs Up– Answers the question to, “How many times must a deck of cards be shuffled until it is close to random?  The answer is 7.
[ Stanford University Archive ]
[ NY TIMES: In Shuffling Cards, 7 is Winning Number ]

Blackjack Decision TablesRichard Allen. Blackjack Decision Tables. GBC; Tempe Publishers. 1984 (32 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. Another wasted effort that included basically good basic strategy advice mixed in with progressive betting nonsense. There is a photo of a young Richard Allen on the back cover with the caption: “Gaming Instructor”.
[ AMAZON: Blackjack Decision Tables ]

 

WGBJSJohn Auston. The World’s Greatest Blackjack Simulation. RGE Publishing; 1997. (52 pages “each”)
star– Excellent. Highly recommended. Foreword by Don Schlesinger. John Auston is the author of Blackjack Risk Manager software. To produce the tables for Chapter 10 of Don Schlesinger’s Blackjack Attack, Auston ran over 100 separate computer simulations of the hi-lo count, each 400 million hands, to test the effects of various numbers of decks (l, 2, and 6), with different rule sets, penetration levels, and betting strategies. Now, for card counters who do not play hi-lo, and who would like charts similar to those in Schlesinger’s Chapter 10 for their own counting system, Auston has made available comprehensive simulation analyses of other popular counting systems. Each individual simulation run includes data on a 132 different games. There are four booklets in the series: Advanced Omega II, Knock-Out, Red Seven and Zen.
[ BJRNET CATALOG ]

Journal of the American Statistical Association - BlackjackRoger Baldwin, Wilbert Cantey, Herbert Maisel and James McDermott. The Optimum Strategy in Blackjack, Journal of the American Statistical Association; September 1956 (Vol. 51, No. 275, pp. 429-439)
star– The first scientific and mathematically sound attempt to devise an optimal blackjack playing strategy. Per the abstract, “This article discusses the card game blackjack as played in the casinos of Las Vegas. The basic rules for the game are described in detail. the player’s strategic problems are analyzed with the objective of finding the strategy maximizing his mathematical expectation.”  This report was the first important published article on an accurate blackjack basic strategy. 
See Playing Blackjack to Win: A New Strategy for the Game of 21. See the Four Horsemen of Aberdeen.
[ BJRNET: Optimal Strategy in Blackjack ]
[ BLACKJACK HISTORY ]

Joseph J. Barry. Table Selection. The Ritz Institute of Blackjack; Jan 1, 1988. (110 pages)
Review TBD.  Per the advertising, “A new approach to Blackjack. Increase your winnings by playing at selected tables“.

Dave Bayer and Persi Diaconis. Trailing the Dovetail Shuffle to its Lair. 1989. Reprinted in the July 1990 issue (Vol.4, No.3) of The Experts Blackjack Newsletter.
Thumbs Up– This report, written by Bayer (Columbia University) and Diaconis (Harvard University) is an analysis of the riffle method for shuffling cards. The authors derive – “a simple expression for the chance of any arrangement after any number of shuffles. This is used to give sharp bounds on the approach to randomness: 3/2 log2 n + -0 shuffles are necessary and sufficient to mix up n cards. Key ingredients are the analysis of a card trick and the determination of the idempotents of a natural commutative subalgebra in the symmetric group algebra.” This study provides evidence that randomness does not occur in a single deck of cards until shuffled at least 7 times.

[ Trailing the Dovetail Shuffle to its Lair ]
[ 3/90 Snyder Ruffled by the Shuffle BJF 5 ]

[ 1/90 Olsen Non-Random Shuffles: Math… BJC ]
[ 6/90 Bayer Experts Blackjack Newsletter ]
[ WIKI: Persi Diaconis ]
[ WIKI: Dave Bayer ]

Carter Bays and S. D. Durham. Improving a Poor Random Number Generator. ACM Transactions on Mathematical Software; March 1976 (Vol. 2, #1, pp. 59-64)
– From the abstract, “This paper introduces a technique which improves the performance of a random number generator.  The method resembles the MacLaren-Marsaglia algorithm… but requires only one random number generator instead of two, and executes in about half the time.”
[ ACM Digital Library ]

Johnny BeltTexas Blackjack System {PBS}. (Self published) B & W Enterprises, Las Vegas, NV; c1979-1980. (19 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. A 19 page report recommending players never take a hit on 12 points or over. And, of course, progressive betting advice is given.

[ 80 C&S Vol.10,24 ]

Rick Blaine. (aka Rick “Night Train” Blaine) Blackjack Blueprint: How to Operate a Blackjack Team. RGE Publishing, Oakland, CA. 2000. (45 pages)
star
– Very Good – Recommended. According to the advertising, “Everything you need to know about team play that Ken Uston never told you. Blaine has been involved with blackjack teams since 1985 and has a wealth of knowledge to share with you.” Don Schlesinger comments, “…the quintessential treatise on blackjack team play.” This report was expanded into a book – see Rick Blaine in blackjack book section.
[ Fall 00 Snyder BJF 110 ]

Blackjack in the ZoneRick Blaine. (aka Rick “Night Train” Blaine) Blackjack In The Zone. RGE Publishing, Oakland, CA; 2000, 2002. (54 pages)
Thumbs Up
– Recommended. Includes a forward by Arnold Snyder. A practical guide for the beginning card counter. Don Schlesinger comments, “It contains solid no nonsense information that every counter needs to know.“. See Rick Blaine in blackjack book section.
[ Spr 02 Snyder BJF 112 ]

Charles Boyd. Play Better Blackjack. (aka Charles W. Forster). Relay-Tech; 1976 (34 pages)
Thumbs Up– A brief introduction to the basic strategies of blackjack and a comparison of several card counting systems.  The author recommends several systems and discusses the weaknesses in each strategy.
[ 80 Gardner Gambling: A Guide to Information Sources 38 ]

Julian Braun. Comparing the Top Blackjack Systems. Gambling Quarterly; Fall/Winter 1974 (pp. 22-23 and pp. 54-55)

Julian Braun. The Development and Analysis of Winning Strategies for Casino Blackjack. (Private research report), Chicago; 1974, 1975.
Thumbs UpBraun analyzes several of the card counting systems of the day, including the Hi-Opt and Revere’s Advanced Point Count. 
[ 80 Snyder The Blackjack Formula 77 ]
[ 3/81 Snyder BJF 17 ]
[ 78 Mitchell An Overview of Blackjack C&S Vol.4, 44 ]
[ 80 Gardner Gambling: A Guide to Information Sources 38 ]

Julian Braun. See entry under Lance Humble. Everything You Wanted to Know…

L. Breiman. Optimal Gambling Systems for Favorable Games. Fourth Berkeley Symposium on Probability and Statistics, Vol. 1; 1961.
Review TBD.

Advanced Card CountingGeorge C. Advanced Card Counting. XYZ Inc., Denver CO; c1995 (40 pages)
star
– Very good. Recommended. This booklet contains some of the most powerful strategies ever devised for the game of blackjack. Includes George C.’s BJ diaries, a high stakes team is formed and advanced counting techniques. Written for advanced card counting players only!
[ Win 97 Snyder BJF 111 ]
[ AMAZON: Advanced Card Counting ]

George C. Easy as 1,2,3 – How to Play a Multi-Level Count System. XYZ Inc., Denver, CO; c1990?

George C. Gambler’s Ruin: The Most Accurate Numbers Ever Generated on this Subject. XYZ Inc., Denver CO; 1989 (?? pages)
[ 3/93 Schlesinger Risk of Ruin BJF 6 ]

George C. How to Make $1 Million Playing Casino Blackjack. XYZ Inc., Denver, CO; 1989 (25 pages)
Thumbs Up– A $50 report describing risky techniques for gaining large casino credit lines. The advertising reads: “A brand new report that holds nothing back. Perfected by two mega high rollers, George C refines their methods used and takes you step-by-step through what normally would seem like an impossible task. George C will even show you how to make the casino a teammate in this adventure. This report contains some valuable information that has never been in print. There’s also a new treatment of RUIN in the report…”
[ 3/90 Snyder BJF 50 ]
[ 3/93 Schlesinger Risk of Ruin BJF 5 ]

George C . How George C. Made $300000 From $10000. XYZ Inc., Denver, CO; 1989.
Thumbs Up– Recommended. Includes a unique table-hopping tactic.

Ploy 1 Ploy 2 Ploy 3George C. Ploy 1 • Ploy 2 • Ploy 3. XYZ Inc., Denver CO; 1991. (38 pages)
Thumbs Up– Recommended. It is not enough to play a good game of blackjack. Three reports that discuss extreme camouflage ploys (to deceive the pit) for high stakes players. These should be compared with Ian Andersen’s Ultimate Gambit.

George C. Red 7 and Uston SS. XYZ Inc., Denver, CO; c1990.
Thumbs Up– Recommended. According to the advertising: Running count numbers plus a new accurate way to bet your money.

Shuffle Tracking for BeginnersGeorge C. Shuffle Tracking for Beginners. XYZ Inc., Denver CO; 1995, 1996 (29 pages)
star– Very good. Recommended. A good introduction to shuffle tracking by a professional blackjack player and card counter.
[ AMAZON: Shuffle Tracking for Beginners ]

George C. The Unbalanced Zen. XYZ Inc., Denver CO; c1995?.
star– Very good. Recommended. A system developed that uses running count numbers for all betting and playing decisions. Advertising also states that …There’s a new and more accurate way to bet your money using an unbalanced system that’s also included.

Unbalanced Zen IIGeorge C. The Unbalanced Zen II. XYZ Inc., Denver CO; 1995. (20 pages)
star– Very good. Recommended. Subtitled, “The Strongest, Simplest Professional Card Counting System for the Game of 21“. This reports explains George C.’s simplified unbalanced version of the Zen count. Simpler yet still very powerful. Includes a 16 page manual and comparisons with other systems. See Blackjack Review issue 5.1 for review and excerpt.
[ Winter 96 BJR 5.1: Review and Excerpt ]

Win With Flat BetsGeorge C. Win With Flat Bets. XYZ Inc., Denver CO; 1990, 1991. (21 pages)
Thumbs Up– Good. Recommended. How to make money seeking comps playing a 2-level count and flat betting. Times have changed since 1991, but if you play for high stakes you will find some useful tips here.

Richard Canfield. Existing Blackjack Systems. Expertise Publishing Co., Reno, NV; 1977, 1979. (43 pages)
star
– Excellent. Highly recommended. Report attempts to evaluate the most widely advertised blackjack systems against three criteria: 1) The system must have a solid mathematical foundation. 2) The system must be practical for casino application. 3) The system must incorporate deceptive techniques during play.
[ c78? Rouge et Noir 13 ]
[ 77 Canfield Blackjack Your Way to Riches ]

Robert Michael Canjar. See entry under MathProf.

Wilbert Cantey. See entry under Roger Baldwin.

Clarke Cant. Blackjack Therapy.
– Controversial report on blackjack and life. Interesting reading to say the least.

[
Blackjack Therapy ]

Avery Cardoza. (Author uncertain) How to Disguise the Fact That You’re an Expert. Cardoza Publishing, Cooper Station, NY; c1985-1990 ???. (1000 words)
Thumbs Up– Offered as part of the $95 Cardoza School of Blackjack course.


Avery Cardoza
. (Author uncertain) How Not to Get Barred. Cardoza Publishing, Cooper Station, NY; c1985-1990. (1500 words)
Thumbs Up– Offered as part of the $95 Cardoza School of Blackjack course.


Bart Carter
. Avoidance Ploys of Card Counters. Paper presented at the 6th National Conference on Gambling in Atlantic City, 1984. Reprinted in Casino & Sports Vol. 28, 1984. (pp. 19-24)
Thumbs Up– Good. Recommended reading.


Bart Carter
. Maintaining a Casino Advantage Against Card Counters. University of Nevada: Reno, Bureau of Business and Economic Research. Presented at the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981. (12 pages)
– Author proposes an 8-deck shoe with marks from the front of the shoe at 2 1/4 deck and 4 1/2 deck portions, and an 8-deck discard rack marked at the one deck level.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir 19 ]

S. Cetinkaya and M. Parlar. Optimal Non-Myopic Gambling Strategy for the Generalized Kelly Criterion. Naval Research Logistics, Vol. 44, pp. 639-654, 1997.
– Abstract: We consider the optimal wagers to be made by a gambler who starts with a given initial wealth. The gambler faces a sequence of two-outcome games, i.e., `win’ vs. `lose’, and wishes to maximize the expected value of his terminal utility. It has been shown by J. L. Kelly, R. Bellman and others that if the terminal utility is of the form log(x) where x is the terminal wealth, then the optimal policy is myopic, i.e., the optimal wager is always to bet a constant fraction of the wealth provided that the probability of winning exceeds the probability of losing. In this paper we provide a critique of the simple logarithmic assumption for the utility of terminal wealth and solve the problem with a more general utility function. We show that in the general case, the optimal policy is not myopic, and provide analytical expressions for the optimal wager decisions in terms of the problem parameters. We also provide conditions under which the optimal policy reduces to the simple myopic case.

The Florida Cruise Ship Report by Michael DaltonMichael Dalton. The Florida Cruise Ship Report. Spur of the Moment Publishing; 1990, 1991. (30 pages)
Thumbs Up– Written by the author of this book. This report included simulation results of more than 200 million hands comparing non-random versus random shuffles. Conclusions suggested non-random shuffling may benefit the casino advantage by as much as .25%. Also included was a simple shuffle tracking method called SECT and general advice and comments on getting an edge in the day cruise games.
[ 10/90 Olsen NASA Engineer… BJC ]

Dale DeShield. Money Management at Tournament Blackjack. (Available at UNLV Gaming Resource Center); 1980. (15 pages)
Review TBD.

P. Diaconis. See entry under D. Aldous. Shuffling Cards and Stopping Times. See entry under Dave Bayer. Trailing the Dovetail Shuffle to its Lair.

John Donnelly. Brief and Appendix in Support of a Waiver of Early Surrender. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981.
Review TBD.

John Donnelly. See entry under Joel Stearns. Supplemental Brief and Appendix…

S. D. Durham. See entry under C. Bays. Improving a Poor Random Number Generator.

S. N. Ethier. On the Definition of the House Advantage. Michigan State University. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981.
– House advantage is usually defined as the ratio of the gambler’s expected net loss to his expected amount of “action”. Ethier argues that a better definition is the ratio of the gambler’s expected net loss to his expected change in fortune.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir 21 ]

S. N. Ethier. See entry under S. Tavare. The Proportional Betters Return on Investment.

T. Ferguson. Betting Systems Which Minimize the Probability of Ruin. J. Soc. Indust. Appl. Math.; 1965, pp. 13, 495-818.

Mike Francis. The Complete Point Count Strategy for Beating Casino Blackjack. R&T Statistical Research, a subsidiary of R&T Publishing Co., Reno, NV; c1980 ??? (27 pages)
– Mike Francis was the pen name selected by a small group of professional blackjack players. This booklet describes the R&T Count.
[ 2/81 Wong Blackjack World 35 ]

Joel Friedman. Choosing a Blackjack Game. Paper presented to the 4th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, Reno, NV; 1978.
– This paper analyzes the effect of the number of decks in a game, penetration, number of players at the table and variation in bet size.
[ 79 Wong 4th Conference on Gaming C&S Vol. 7, 52 ] [ c81? Rouge et Noir 23 ]

Joel Friedman. Risk Averse Playing Strategies in the Game of Blackjack. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; 1980.
– Useful information for expert players who bet according to the Kelly Criterion.
[ 80 Gottlieb Friedman on Blackjack C&S Vol.12, 66 ]

Joel Friedman, M.J. Garvey and Mark Goodfriend. A Sequential Decision Model for the Tournament Blackjack Endgame. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; October 1981 (27 pages)
– Interesting tournament strategy advice. Analyzes playing strategies that maximize the probability of winning the hand versus maximizing the probability of getting at least a push.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir 9 ]

Joel Friedman. Understanding and Applying the Kelly Criterion. Report to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, sponsored by the Dept. of Economics of the Univ. of Nevada at Reno; 1981.
– Deals with the question of simultaneous wagering.
[ 82 Griffin Optimal Wagers on Sim. Bets Vol.18,53 ]
[ c81? Rouge et Noir 8 ]

Elliot Frome. Expert Strategy for Blackjack Switch. Compu-Flyers; 2011. (14 pages)
Review TBD.

M. J. Garvey. See entry under Joel Friedman. A Sequential Decision Model For the….

A. Goldman. See entry under G. Hasty. Casino Card Shuffling Report.

Winning at Blackjack Without GamblingAllen Goldberg and the editorial staff of Delshar Industries, Inc. Winning at Blackjack Without Gambling. Delshar, Costa Mesa, CA; 1973. (32 pages)
Review TBD

Mark Goodfriend. See entry under Joel Friedman. A Sequential Decision Model.

J. H. Goodnight. See entry under A. R. Manson. Optimum Zero Memory Strategy and…

Edward Gordon. Optimum Strategy in Blackjack: A New Analysis, Claremont Economic Papers #52, Claremont, CA, Jan. 1973. Paper presented to the 1st National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1974.
Thumbs Up– First proposal of the Gordon count which was marketed as the DHM system.

Don Goren. Shuffle Tracking Using Neural Networks, Spur of the Moment Publishing. 1997. Published over 3 issues of Blackjack Review magazine.

Thumbs Up / Down

– Good. Recommended with reservations. An interesting but very complex analysis of shuffle tracking. However, my advice is to read these articles for your advanced education but eventually use simpler shuffle tracking advice from Arnold Snyder or George C.
[ 97 BJR 6.2, 6.3, 6.4 ] [ Don Goren Shuffle Tracking Response ]

Gary Gottlieb. An Analytic Derivation of Win Rate at Blackjack. Operations Research, Vol. 33, pp. 971-981, Sept/Oct 1985. Paper also presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, University of Nevada, Reno, Bureau of Business and Economic Research; 1981. (19 pages)
– This paper derives a closed-form formula for the win rate in the game of blackjack as a function of various controllable parameters such as the number of decks used.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir 10 ]

Gary Gottlieb. An Optimal Betting Strategy For Repeated Games. Journal of Applied Probability, Vol. 22, pp. 787-795, 1985.
Review TBD.

Doug Grant. (aka Douglas Grant Von Reiman) The Doug Grant Advanced Dominant Group Method of Winning Blackjack. Sigma Research, Inc., 1985. (39 pages + 12 sound cassettes)
Review TBD. The Doug Grant mimic the dealer computer program ???

Doug Grant. (aka Douglas Grant Von Reiman) The Doug Grant Dominant Group Method Special Revision Lesson. Sigma Research, Inc., 1988. (18 pages)
– – Review TBD. Forecasting the apex of the running count total. ???

Doug Grant. (aka Douglas Grant Von Reiman) The Doug Grant Method of Instructing Blackjack Card Counting. Sigma Research, Inc., The Doug Grant Gaming College, 1980, 1983.
Review TBD.

Doug Grant. (aka Douglas Grant Von Reiman) The Sigma Report. Sigma Research, Inc., 1997c.
– ??? Doug Grant may be the author or co-author of this report. This report reportedly offered casino consulting and counter catching services.
[ groups.google.com/forum ]
[ groups.google.com/forum… ]

Peter Griffin. Curios and Pathologies in the Game of Twenty-One. Paper presented to the 3rd National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1976.

Peter Griffin. Different Measures of Win Rate for Optimal Proportional Betting. Management Science, Vol. 30, 1984; pp. 1540-1547.

Peter Griffin. The Effect of Casino Reshuffling Procedures on a Blackjack Player’s Fixed Strategy Expectation. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981.
– Investigation of subsequent hands that may sometimes be finished before reshuffling but occasionally require that the cards in the discard pile be reshuffled for completion. Results are provided for “quarterdeck (13 card deck) and “Woolworth” (played with only fives and tens) blackjack.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir ]

Peter Griffin. Mathematical Expectation for the Public’s Play in Casino Blackjack. Paper presented at the 7th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1989.
– Included in its entirety in Griffin’s book Extra Stuff – Gambling Ramblings.

Peter Griffin. On the Likely Consequences of Error in Card Counting Systems. Paper presented to the 3rd National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1976.

Peter Griffin. Optimal Wagers on Simultaneous Bets, Casino & Sports; 1982, Vol. 18, p.53-56.

Peter Griffin. The Rate of Gain in Player Expectation for Card Games Characterized by Sampling Without Replacement and an Evaluation of Card Counting Systems. Gambling and Society, Charles T. Publishing, Springfield, IL; 1976 (pp. 429-442)

Peter Griffin. Some Exact and Some Variance Reducing Techniques for Blackjack Computation. Paper presented to the 4rd National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1978.

Peter Griffin. Use of Bivariate Normal Approximations to Evaluate Single Parameter Card Counting Systems in Blackjack; 1975. Paper presented to the 2nd annual Conference on Gambling, Lake Tahoe, NV 1975 and to the 3rd Conference on Gambling, Las Vegas; 1976.

Peter Griffin. What to do After Losing Your Insurance Bet. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981.
– Presents a method of improving blackjack strategies when the dealer has a playable ace.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir 10 ]

NOTE: Much of Griffin’s material, as presented at the National Gambling Conferences through 1981, is included in his book, The Theory of Blackjack.

 

James Grosjean. Beyond Coupons.
Thumbs Up– Recommended. From the article, “Visitors to Las Vegas are often given ‘fun books’ with coupons providing discounts on everything from Hoover Dam excursions to hot dogs. Usually a few of the coupons offer improved payouts in casino games. For example, with a $10 ‘match-play’ coupon, the gambler wagers $10 of his own money (or chips) along with the coupon, and winners are paid as if his bet were $20. By changing the payouts of the game, these coupons can affect the player’s strategy in subtle ways.
[ BJF Gambling Library: Beyond Coupons ]

James Grosjean and Previn Mankodi. 42.08%.
Thumbs Up– Recommended.  From the article, “So we know we’ve got an Ace coming. Now comes the hard part: How much do we bet? Begging the question of how much to bet, how would we play the hand?
[ BJF Gambling Library: 42.08% ]

James Grosjean and Previn Mankodi. CTR-Averse Betting.
Thumbs Up– Recommended. From the article, “Players frequently ask ‘How much of my bankroll should I bring on a trip?’ Or, ‘If I bring $X, what is my trip-ruin probability?’ Along these lines, some analysis has been done on the question, ‘If I have only $X with me, out of a much larger bankroll, how should I bet?’
[ BJF Gambling Library: CTR-Averse Betting ]

James Grosjean and Previn Mankodi. Scavenger Blackjack.
Thumbs Up– Recommended. From the article, “Scavenging opportunities in blackjack fall into three main categories ‘buying/selling hands, doubling down, and splitting. There is an opportunity to buy or sell a hand anytime a civilian has mispriced a hand, or when his risk aversion differs from the scavenger’s, offering hedging possibilities.
[ BJF Gambling Library: Scavenger Blackjack ]

John Gwynn Jr and Robert Maltas. Additional Results Comparing Random and Simulated Casino Shuffling. RGE Publishing, Oakland, CA; 1992. (9 pages)
Thumbs Up– Good. Recommended. An extension of the single deck study performed in 1987 (see entry below) comparing casino and random shuffling. A synopsis of this report can be found in the following source:
[ 3/92 Gwynn BJF 14 ]

John Gwynn Jr and Arnold Snyder. Does Casino Blackjack Differ From Computer-Simulated Blackjack?. RGE Publishing, Oakland, CA; 1987. (24 pages)
Thumbs Up– Good report challenging the non-random shuffle theorists, however, their study was limited to single deck blackjack and basic strategy only. Also, simulated riffles were interlaced more precisely than what some non-random theorists say can be found in the real world.
[ 3/88 Gwynn BJF ]
[ 3/92 Gwynn BJF 14 ]

John Gwynn Jr and Jeffrey Teal. Experimental Comparisons of Multiparameter Systems for Blackjack Strategy Variation. – Paper presented at the 5th National Gambling Conference at Caesars Tahoe; 1981.
[ 82 Gwynn…Paper Error Corrected C&S Vol.19, 48 ]
[ c81? Rouge et Noir 9 ]

John Gwynn Jr and Armand Seri. Experimental Comparison of Blackjack Betting Systems. – Paper presented to the 4th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, Reno, sponsored by the University of Nevada; 1978 (31 pages)
– Contains comparisons of available blackjack systems when they are played properly.

[ 79 Wong 4th Conference on Gaming C&S Vol. 7, 5 2 ]
[ c80? Rouge et Noir ]

John Gwynn Jr. Also, see entry under Don Schlesinger, The Floating Advantage.

James Hanson. Nonlinear Programming, Simulation and Gambling Theory Applied to Blackjack. Paper presented to the 1st National Conference on Gambling & Risk Taking; 1974.

G. Hasty, R. Kirk and A. Goldman. Casino Card Shuffling Report. Mathematics Dept., Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV; c1980? (13 pages)
– A report that updates a study conducted four years earlier at the request of the Lady Luck Casino. Authors feel that the speed of hand play is only one consideration affecting blackjack profits.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir 19 ]

David Heath. Algorithms for Computations of Blackjack Strategies; 1973. Presented to the 2nd National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking sponsored by the University of Nevada; 1975.

David Heath. Remarks on the Advantage of Basic Strategy in Casino Play. Distributed at the 2nd Gambling Conference, Stateline, NV; June, 1975.

New Fortune Series Presents Beat the DealerLou Holloway. New Fortune Series Presents Beat–the–Dealer (Blackjack 21). Computerized Systems; c1970s (16 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. (Ghosted by Lou Holloway) A small booklet presenting progressive betting money management advice (Gerald’s Gentile Glide).

 

Lou Holloway. New Fortune Series Presents Winning at Blackjack (21). Computered Systems; 1970 (20 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. (Ghosted by Lou Holloway) Advice to the casual 21 player. Includes counting and progressive money management information.
 

Lance Humble and Julian Braun. Everything You Wanted to Know About the World’s Most Powerful Blackjack Systems. International Gaming Inc., Thornhill, Ontario, Canada; 1978. (32 pages)
– This pamphlet was published by Humble primarily as a means to advertise his International Blackjack Club, Hi-Opt strategies and books. Contains some interesting historical information.


Koko Ita. A Very Simplified Scientific Counting Procedure for the Blackjack Game. Paper presented to the 2nd National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1975.
– This material can also be found in Koko Ita’s book Twenty-One Counting Methods to Beat 21.


Steve Jacobs. Computation of Optimal Betting Strategy for Blackjack; 1993. Posted on RGB.
[
Computation of Optimal Betting Strategy for Blackjack ]

 

Ace Adjustment Made SimpleMatthew Jackson. Ace Adjustment Made Simple; 1993. (27 pages)
Thumbs Up– Good. Recommended. Includes complete conversion charts for level 1, 2, 3 and 4 counting systems, using either full- or half-deck true count adjustments and for single- and double-deck games.
[ 9/93 Snyder BJF 98 ]

 

Mike Joseph. Basic Strategy For Beginners. Self published; 1988 (18 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. A beginner’s booklet on blackjack and blackjack terminology. A good idea but a wasted effort due to serious errors throughout the text.
[ AMAZON: Basic Strategy for Beginners ]


Thomas Kadlic and Murray Kirch. Blackjack II – An Anti-Card Counting System. Ansecan, NJ; Vingt-Et-Un Corp. Paper present at the 5th National Conference on Gaming and Risk Taking; Oct. 1981.
Thumbs Up– Describes a proposed system the casinos can use to counter the counters without harming the viability of the game. A double shoe with 12 decks held in 2 separate compartments is proposed, however, with the same rules and conditions of regular blackjack play. Six decks are red and six decks are blue with the deal alternating based on suit color.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir 20 ]

R. Karlee. Blackjack for Fun?… Or Profit?. R. Karlee. 1977, 1983. (20 pages)
Thumbs Up– Titled a comprehensive method for playing winning blackjack. Includes a short introduction and some good advice for beginners. Recommended.

Gideon Keren. See entry under Willem Wagenaar. Calibration of Probability…

John Kelly. A New Interpretation of Information Rate. IRE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. IT-2, No. 3, Sept 1956. Bell System Technical Journal; 1956 (Vol. 35, pp. 917-926)
star– Explains the Kelly criterion. Since this report may be difficult to find, the Kelly criterion is fully explained in Allan Wilson’s Casino Gambler’s Guide and in the March and June 1993 issues of Arnold Snyder’s Blackjack Forum magazine.

Murray Kirch. See entry under Thomas Kadlic. Blackjack II – An Anti-Card….

R. Kirk. See entry under G. Hasty. Casino Card Shuffling Report.

Image Not AvailableI. Knowles. Learn How to be a Dealer: Blackjack.
– I have yet to see this manual but it is available from The Gambler catalog of the World Wide Casino Exchange, Las Vegas (see section 3.12). Catalog states that the author is a Las Vegas casino executive with over 40 years of experience and has operated his own dealer’s school. This manual is supposedly the same “Professional Dealing Manual” that was used at The Las Vegas Dealing School teaching casino procedures of how to be a professional dealer.

 

How to Win at Casino BlackjackJames G. Lathrop, Jr. How to Win at Casino Blackjack. Casino Surveillance Pro; 2018 (9 pages)
Review TBD. According to the author, “… describes in detail my advice, based on 25 years of Casino surveillance experience, for those who want to play winning Blackjack, lose less often and win more, and more often when they’re at the tables. I discuss all types of advantage play, basic strategy, money management, masking your play and having the proper mindset and exit strategy.

 

Multi Level Betting Only Count

Fred Lite. Multi Level Betting Only Count. Self published; c1980 (32 pages)
Thumbs Up / Down– Recommended. Subtitled, An up to date approach to winning at blackjack through card counting under current casino conditions. An accurate color basic strategy chart, a complex count (Griffin 7 count), training exercises and charts, betting guidelines and advice on how to act and bet to reduce heat and detection. Primarily written for the Atlantic City games of the 1970s and 80s. Too complex of a count for my taste.

Herbert Maisel. See entry under Roger Baldwin.

Previn Mankodi. See entries under James Grosjean.

A. R. Manson, A. J. Barr, and J. H. Goodnight. Optimum Zero Memory Strategy and Exact Probabilities for 4-Deck Blackjack. The American Statistician; 1975 (29(2):84-88)

MathProf. aka Robert Michael Canjar. Using RA-Fractions to Optimize DI or RoR. BJmath workshop.
– Discusses risk averse playing and betting strategies using what the author refers to as critical fractions. The strategy which minimizes Risk of Ruin is the one which is RA-optimal at the double Kelly level.

Harry McArdle. The High-Low Pick-Up Count. Jamaica, New York. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981.
– Paper outlines a count whose purpose is to determine the extent to which high cards follow high cards in the deck.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir ]

Harry McArdle. Twenty Years of Blackjack in Puerto Rico and Some Observations On Cheating. Jamaica, New York. (Possibly presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981 ???)
– This paper covers three phases in the history of Puerto Rican blackjack including the period before Thorp, the early 1970’s, and since the opening of Atlantic City casinos. Cheating by the Puerto Rican casinos is discussed.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir ]

Whit McCall. Blackjack Profits Princeton Publications, Lawrenceville, NJ; c1979 (36 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. How to win at blackjack without counting cards? Well… manage you money and parlay your winnings.Whit McCall’s real name is possibly Joe Finley?
[ 79 C&S Vol.8,48 ]

James McDermott. See entry under Roger Baldwin.

David McDowell. See entry under David Poolside. The Poolside Report: Blac….

 

Rusty Miller. How Card Counters Get Rich. Crew’s News – A Showboat Casino newsletter; 1987.
Review TBD.

Martin Millman. A Statistical Analysis of Casino Blackjack. Dept. of Math., William Patterson College, Wayne, NJ. Paper reprinted in Casino & Sports, 1984 (Vol. 26. pp. 23-28)

D. Howard Mitchell and Stanley Roberts. How Advanced Should Your Blackjack System Be? Paper presented to the 4th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1978.
Thumbs Up– This paper contends that “computer simulations can provide much useful information, but they are not the whole story.” The authors classify blackjack systems on the basis of their difficulty. These classes include: Basic (no counting), Intermediate (simple side count), Advanced (running count), Professional (true count plus an optional side count of aces), and Expert (anything more complicated than Professional).
[ c80? Rouge et Noir 24 ]

J. C. Moore. Blackjack X-Count 2000: Nutshell Books, Welch, OK; 1999. (52 pages)
Review TBD. This spiral bound book/report advertises, “Always reflects player’s 2% edge. The counting system that renders all others obsolete for effectiveness and simplicity.”


Eddie Olsen. A Winning Strategy for Tournament Blackjack. Blackjack Confidential Publishing Co., Cherry Hill, NJ; 1991. (20 pages)
Thumbs Up– Good. Recommended. Although it is only 20 pages long this report contains good general advice for blackjack tournament play. It is written in a much simpler style than Wong’s Tournament Blackjack. Eddie Olsen gave this report (over-priced at $195) away to 2 year subscribers of his magazine during 1991 and 1992.

Eddie Olsen. See entry under Jerry Patterson. TARGET Manual….
– Not recommended


Chris Palumbo. Winning Blackjack (The Palumbo Method). San Clemente, CA; c1983 ??? (8 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended.
[ 83 C&S Vol.25,36 ]

Jerry Patterson. Instant Advantage. Casino Gaming Specialists, Voorhees, NJ; 1982 (18 pages)
Review TBD. Designed for the inexperienced player and occasional gambler. Simplified basic strategy, card counting, pivotal numbers, money management, etc.
[ 82 Gaem C&S Vol.21,42 ]
[ 12/82 Snyder BJF 46 ]
[ 10/82 Wong BJW Vol.4,162 ]

Jerry Patterson and Eddie Olsen. TARGET Manual: Table Research, Grading & Evaluation Technique Course Manual, Voorhees, NJ; 1985 (30 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. This is the manual you get (among other documentation) with the TARGET course.

Jerry Patterson. TARGET 21 Tool Kit & Blackjack Training Agenda. Echelon Gaming Corp., Voorhees, NJ; 1990 (48 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. Available to Patterson’s TARGET and Blackjack Enrichment course graduates. Updates the TARGET method and includes training aids for TARGET players. Includes basic strategy, money management methods, card counting, the Loss Terminator Tactic, Tally Per Player (TPP), Off-The-Top scouting method, simplified BIAS Barometer, Takedown, High-Low-Bias, Count Reversal Strategy and playing on the run.

David Poolside. The Poolside Report: Blackjack Ace Tracking; 2003 (54 pages) (David McDowell)
Thumbs Up– Very good. Recommended. Of interest to advanced card counters and professionals. Provides a history of ace tracking and a step by step method on how to gain significant advantages using one of the most closely guarded secrets of the game. This report was the basis of the book Blackjack: Ace Prediction by David McDowell.

Stanley Roberts. See entry under D. Howard Mitchell. How Advanced Should Your…

Ed Rosario. Success in Blackjack. Self published, Broadview, IL; c1978 ??? (26 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. A progressive betting system.
[ c78? Rouge et Noir 36 ]


Donald Schlesinger and John Gwynn. The Floating Advantage – Does it Sink or Swim?. RGE Enterprises, Oakland, CA; 1989 (34 pages)
star

– Excellent. Highly Recommended. A fascinating paper that discusses the long-held notion that the same true count implies a greater advantage later in the deck than it did earlier. This report and most of the accompanying data were printed in the March 1989 issue of Arnold Snyder’s Blackjack Forum.

David Schnell-Davis. High-Tech Casino Advantage Play: Legislative Approaches to the Threat of Predictive Devices. UNLV Gaming Law Journal: Vol. 3 Issue 2 Article 7; 2012. (45 pages)
star– Excellent. Recommended. From the abstract:This paper examines how device laws in the United States have dealt with predictive devices over the years and how device laws can be improved. Part I of this paper looks at how different laws address predictive devices. In addition, Part I examines three device laws in depth and compares their effectiveness. Part II discusses the history and evolution of several types of predictive devices, and how the laws in Part I have been applied. Part III proposes a model device law designed to address the shortcomings of current laws. Finally, Part IV looks at the future of device laws, both in terms of potential technological advances and how device laws might be applied to Internet gambling.
[ High-Tech Casino Advantage Play ]

Geraldine Scullion. A Woman’s Approach to Blackjack. (23 pages)
Review TBD.

Armand Seri. Optimum Running Count Strategies in Blackjack.
– Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981.

Armand Seri. See entry under John Gwynn Jr. Experimental Comparison of…

Patrick Sileo. The Evaluation of Blackjack Games Using a Combined Expectation and Risk Measure. 8th Annual Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, London; 1990.
[ 90 Chambliss BJF 6 ] [ 93 Schlesinger Risk and Ruin BJF 6 ]

Terry Sincich. The Blackjack Victory of the Seven Samurai. Article from Chapter 4 (Probability) of Statistics by Example, 2nd edition, Dellen Publishing Co., San Francisco, CA; 1985 (762 pages)
Review TBD.

Richard Skov. See entry under James Smither. Attributions for the Poorly…

James W. Smither, Richard B. Skov and Seymour Adler. Attributions for the Poorly Performing Blackjack Dealer: In the Cards or Inability? Personnel Psychology; Spring 1986 (Vol. 39)

Arnold Snyder. Algebraic Approximation of Optimum Blackjack Strategy. Berkeley, CA, 1980. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, Univ. of Nevada at Reno, Bureau of Business and Economic Research; 1981. (24 pages)
– Presents a simple algebraic method of developing strategy indices for any balanced card counting system. It is shown that anyone with a pocket calculator can quickly and accurately develop relatively complete strategy tables for any balanced card counting system, using available computer derived data in conjunction with simple algebraic and linear assumptions.
[ c81? Rouge et Noir ]
[ 12/81 Snyder BJF 26 ]

Arnold Snyder. The Over/Under Report. (with computer analysis by Sam Case) RGE Publishing; Oakland, CA; 1989.
star

– Excellent. Highly recommended. Get this report if you plan to play the Over/Under 13 games. Includes point count systems optimized for this side bet.
[ 89 BJF ]

Arnold Snyder. Toking Guidelines for Card-Counters. RGE Publishing; Oakland, CA; 1980. (2 pages)
– First published in Rouge et Noir newsletter. When to toke and when not to toke dealers and how much and how often.
[ 3/81 Snyder BJF 21 ]
[ 10/31/80 Snyder Rouge et Noir ]

Arnold Snyder. Unraveling the Riddles of the Real-World Riffle. RGE Publishing, Oakland, CA; 1990. (11 pages)
star– Very good. Recommended. Includes new information on the effects of non-random shuffles using John Imming’s RWC: Universal Blackjack Engine software. Printed in the December 1990 issue of Blackjack Forum. Portions were also printed in The Player.

Arnold Snyder. The Zen Count. 1981. (12 pages)
– Before Blackbelt in Blackjack Snyder published this booklet describing his Zen Count card counting system.
[ 12/81 Wong BJW 210 ]

Arnold Snyder. See entry under John Gwynn Jr. Does Casino Blackjack Differ From…  Also, for other articles by Arnold Snyder, visit the Blackjack Forum Professional Gambling Library.

Equalization BlackjackDominic Spence. Equalization Blackjack. The Gambler’s Emporium. ????. (?? pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. Author claims to have been recruited by Ken Uston in 1976 to play on his blackjack team.  He believes the use of psychology and the behavioral and emotional reactions of players, an effective money management technique and basic strategy are all you need to win at blackjack.  He believes card counting is a “fading commodity“.  He even goes on to say, “Winning players CAN and DO impact the outcomes in certain playing situations.”   You too can learn how to beat the game learning “loopholes” that “equalize the house advantage” for only $40.

Joel Stearns and John Donnelly. Supplemental Brief and Appendix on Behalf of Resorts International Hotel, Inc., in Uston Vs. Resorts International. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981.
Review TBD.

Ralph Stricker. Cycles and Circumstances. 1980.
Review TBD. According to Eddie Olsen this was a $295 version of Charles Einstein’s Basic Blackjack Betting – a non-counting method.  Stricker has written that he never subscribed to Einstein’s system but believed it could be used as “cover” play for blackjack. Ralph Stricker is reported to also have once ran a Stanley Roberts franchise in Marlton, NJ.
[ BJINSIDER: How and Where it Began ]


S. Tavare and S. Etheir. The Proportional Bettors Return on Investment. Journal of Applied Probablity; 1983 (Vol. 20, pp.563-573)
Review TBD.

Jeffrey Teal. See entry under John Gwynn Jr. Experimental Comparisons of Multi…

Edward O. Thorp. Blackjack. Mathematics Dept., University of CA; 1975. (11 pages)
– Paper presented to the annual American Mathematical Society, 1975 in Washington D.C.

Edward O. Thorp. Blackjack Systems; 1973. Paper presented at the 2nd National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1975.

Edward O. Thorp and R. J. Whitley. Concave Utilities are Distinguished for Their Optimal Strategies. Colloquia Mathematica Societatis Janos Bolyai 9 – Progress in Statistics. Proceedings of the European Meeting of Statisticians, Budapest, 1972. Edited by J. Grani, S. Sarkadi and I. Vincze. North Holland, 1974. (pp. 813-830)

Edward O. Thorp. A Favorable Side Bet in Nevada Baccarat. Journal of the American Statistical Assoc.; June 1966 (Vol. 61, Part I, pp. 313-328)
– The illustration of, and application of, the Kelly criterion.

A Favorable Strategy for Twenty-OneEdward O. Thorp. A Favorable Strategy for Twenty-One. Notices of the American Mathematical Society; Jan. 1961. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences; Jan 1961 (Vol. 47, #1: pp.110-112). Paper dated Nov 21, 1960.
Thumbs Up– One of the articles that started it all.
[ NCBI: A Favorable Strategy for Twenty-One ]
[ BJRNET: A Favorable Strategy for Twenty-One ]

Edward O. Thorp. Fortune’s Formula: The Game of Blackjack. Notices of the American Mathematical Society; Dec. 1960 (pp. 935-936)

Edward O. Thorp. and W. E. Walden. The Fundamental Theorem of Card Counting with Applications to Trente-et-Quarante and Baccarat. International Journal of Game Theory, Physica-Verlag. Vol. 2; 1973 (Vol. 2, Issue 2)

Edward O. Thorp. The Kelly Criterion in Blackjack, Sports Betting, and the Stock Market. Paper presented at: The 10th International Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking, Montreal, June 1997; revised May 29, 1998

Edward O. Thorp. Nonrandom Shuffling with Applications to the Game of Faro. Journal of the American Statistical Assoc.; Dec. 1973 (Vol. 68, Num. 344, pp. 842-847)
– An example illustration is also made for the game of blackjack.

Edward O. Thorp. Optimal Gambling Systems for Favorable Games. Review of the International Statistics Institute; 1969 (Vol. 37:3, pp. 273-279)

Edward O. Thorp. Portfolio Choice and the Kelly Criterion. Proceedings of the 1971 Business and Economics Section of the American Statistical Assoc.; 1972 (pp. 215-224).
– Reprinted in Investment Decision-Making, edited by J. Bicksler. Reprinted in Stochastic Optimization Models in Finance, Academic Press, edited by W.T. Ziemba, S.L. Brumelle and R.G. Vickson, 1975. (pp. 599-620)

Edward O. Thorp. A Professor Beats the Gamblers. Published as an article in The Gambler’s Bedside Book, edited by John K. Hutchens, Taplinger Pub. Co., New York; 1977 (pp. 166-177)
– Originally published in The Atlantic Monthly, June 1962.


Ken Uston. Does the Gambling Industry Have a Conscience?. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981.
Review TBD.

Ken Uston. Ken Uston’s Blackjack Seminar and Advanced Point Count. Uston Institute of Blackjack, Las Vegas, NV; c1978 ??? (32 pages)
Thumbs Up
– The package of course materials used by Ken Uston in his Jockey Club Las Vegas Seminars. Includes 3 sets of 1 7/8″ by 1 7/8″ basic strategy flash cards.
[ c78? Rouge et Noir 16 ]

Ken Uston and Gerard A. Fuerle. Dollars and Sense: The Ultimate in BLACKJACK Strategy Exclusively for Atlantic City. Uston Institute of Blackjack, Philadephia, PA; 1979. (19 pages)
– Included with the “Uston,” a plastic circular slide-rule type blackjack calculator designed for use in Atlantic City when early surrender was available. Recommended as a collector’s item only.


Jerry Verbel. How to Make a Day’s Pay From $100 to $1,000 Playing Blackjack. Self published; 1992. (40 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. The author presents a classic progressive betting system. Top that with an incorrect basic strategy and you have just another worthless blackjack system.
[ Sum 92 Dalton BJR 23]


Willem Wagenaar and Gideon B. Keren. Calibration of Probability Assessments by Professional Blackjack Dealers, Statistical Experts, and Lay People. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 36, pp. 406-16, December 1985.
Review TBD.

W. E. Walden. See entry under Edward O. Thorp. The Fundamental Theorem of…

R. J. Whitley. See entry under Edward O. Thorp. Concave Utilities are Distinguished…

Stanford Wong, . Blackjack Secrets. Pi Yee Press, La Jolla, CA; 1985. (30 pages)
Thumbs Up– Good. Recommended. Describes some of Wong’s personal techniques of play. Includes sections on Wonging, solo play, penetration, entering a casino, bet variation, best games, double exposure, toking, smile, cheating, counting systems, camouflage plays, supervision, cover, Atlantic City. This short manuscript is no longer published, however, all material has been included in the 1993 edition of his book of the same name.
[ 9/85 Snyder BJF 46 ]

Stanford Wong. Counter-Casino Confrontation Symposium. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981.

Stanford Wong. Introduction to Blackjack. Pi Yee Press; 1980. (16 pages)
– An good introduction to blackjack and presentation of basic strategy.

Stanford Wong. Reno-Tahoe Blackjack. Pi Yee Press; 1976. (25 pages)

Stanford Wong. Vegas Downtown Blackjack. Pi Yee Press; 1976. (27 pages)

Stanford Wong. Vegas Strip Blackjack. Pi Yee Press; 1976. (27 pages)
– The above 3 reports are abridged versions of Professional Blackjack. They contain a good explanation of the Hi-Low system and an introduction to the game.

Stanford Wong. What Proportional Betting Does to Your Win Rate. Paper presented to the 5th National Conference on Gambling and Risk Taking; 1981. Reprinted in Blackjack World, October 1981 (Vol.3, p.162)
[ 84 Griffin Discontinuity at the… C&S Vol.26,16 ]
[ 10/81 Wong What Prop. Betting Does… BJW 162 ]

REPORTS WITH NO AUTHOR MENTIONED

Blackjack: International Dealer's SchoolInternational Dealers School. Blackjack. Self published; 1984 (30 pages)
Thumbs Up– Recommended if you are interested in how dealers are taught. There are three basic rules: 1) Protect the deck, 2) Protect the game, and 3) Protect yourself (The Dealer). Published by the International Dealer’s School in Las Vegas, Nevada.

Accu-Count System for Winning Blackjack The Accu-Count System for Winning Blackjack. Accu-Count Inc; Jan 1, 1976 (35 pages)
Thumbs Up– Includes an introduction, typical rules, basic strategy, the Accu-Count point count system, suggested betting, the Accu-Count variable strategy, adjustment for Aces, player’s expectations, list of figures and tables.
[ AMAZON: The Accu-Count System for Winning Blackjack ]

Blackjack Pit Procedures. Published by Taj Mahal Casino Resort; c1989 ??? (86 pages)
Thumbs UpEddie Olsen rates this as one of the most detailed casino manuals about casino blackjack procedures ever written.
[ 11/90 Olsen BJC 23 ]

Casino & Gaming Directory for Nevada. RW Directories, PO BOX 955, Draper, UT 84020. 1991. (23 pages)
Thumbs Up– Good. Recommended. A short guide that attempts to list all of Nevada casinos with number of tables, $ range, BJ rules, number of decks and other games offered.

Gambling Times & WIN Magazine Master Index. (Stanley Sludikoff aka Stanley Roberts) Gambling Times Inc., Van Nuys, CA; 1992. (113 pages)
Thumbs Up– Very good. Highly recommended. This spiral bound document is the comprehensive index to Gambling Times and WIN Magazine from February 1977 through December 1992. Sludikoff sold this index for about $100 but included several back issues in the deal during 1992.

Tri-Level Blackjack. Professional Research, Mineola, NY; c1978. (14 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. See entry in encyclopedia.

The Turfwin Blackjack System. Turfwin, Port Washington, NY; 1976. (12 pages)
Thumbs Up– Not recommended. See entry in encyclopedia.

Uniform Dealing Procedures and Rules. Holiday Inn and Holiday Casino, Las Vegas, NV; February 1984. (10 pages)
Review TBD. Typical dealing procedures and rules written for dealers by casino management. Available at the Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas Special Collections area.

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