**THE ENCYCLOPEDIA OF CASINO TWENTY-ONE # A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W XYZ **

**K**. See **king**.

** Kalinevitch Ten Count**. {TCS}. TBD

[ 78 Kalinevitch

*Blackjack Made Easy*]

**Kaplan, Bill**. Kaplan was a 1980 Harvard MBA graduate and ran a successful blackjack team in Las Vegas. That is, until he met “**Mr. M**” of the **MIT Blackjack Team** and helped form a new MIT team in 1980.

[blackjacklife.com/blackjack-legends-bill-kaplan-and-j-p-massar/ ]

[ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIT_Blackjack_Team ]

[ youtube.com/watch?v=oZ1Pejt4o2c ]

[ themitblackjackteam.com/bill-kaplan.htm ]

**Kansas**. In 2016, the state of Kansas had 6 casinos with 70 blackjack tables.

[ qfit.com/maps.shtml ]

**Keen**, Paul (March 14, 1942 – Oct 22, 1994) A well respected card counter and former Las Vegas reporter for **Arnold Snyder’s** * Blackjack Forum*. Paul was an employee of the

*in Las Vegas and was always willing to share his knowledge of the game with visitors.*

**Gambler’s Book Club****Steve Forte**has said that “

*Paul Keen was certainly one of the game’s notable ‘journeymen’*“.

**Howard Schwartz**comments, “

*Paul was a very special person and probably assisted more people on blackjack books than anyone else in our 30-year history*.” Paul died of heart failure. See

**Precision Count**.

[

**Kelly betting**. To bet in a manner that will maximize the long term growth rate of your bankroll. See **Kelly Criterion**.

* Kelly Criterion*. (John L. Kelly, Jr.) (1956) This is a bet-sizing system based on the knowledge of the player’s advantage and variance at any point in the game. The standard deviation (SD) for a single hand in blackjack is about 1.15

^{1)}A standard deviation of 1.15 is based on a blackjack game with liberal rules. If the rules are not so generous the SD can be as low as 1.10 or so. thus the

**variance**turns out to be about 1.32 (square of the SD). An optimal Kelly bet can be calculated to be:

**(%Advantage / Variance) x $Bankroll**

So, if a player has a 1% advantage and a $10,000 **bankroll**:

**(.01 / 1.32) x $10000 = $75.76**

he should bet about $75 on the hand. The Kelly Criterion is used in **money management** by many professional card counters to maximize the long term growth rate of their bankroll. Since the formula above recommends a $0 bet when you have no advantage, many players opt to use 1/2 Kelly. See **risk of ruin**. See **gambler’s ruin**. See **Leib Criterion**. See **Certainty Equivalence**. See **SCORE**.

[ blackjackreview.com/wp/archives/red-taylor-kelly-criterion-faq/ ]

[ wizardofodds.com/games/blackjack/appendix/4/ ]

[ wizardofodds.com/gambling/kelly-criterion/ ]

[ 03-21-56 Kelly *A New Interpretation of Information Rate* turtletrader.com/kelly.pdf and static.bjrnet.com/pdf/kelly.pdf ]

[ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelly_criterion ]

[ 6/66 Thorp *A Favorable Side Bet in Nevada Baccarat *Vol.61,313 ]
[ 70 Wilson *The Casino Gambler’s Guide *]
[ 81 Friedman *Understanding & Applying the Kelly…* ]
[ c81? *Rouge et Noir* 8 ]
[ 10/81 Wong *Blackjack World* Vol.3,162 ]
[ 83 Griffin *A Fractured Fable* Vol.22,6 ]
[ 83 Friedman *Kelly vs Mini-Max* Vol.24,10 ]
[ 87 Humble *World’s Greatest Blackjack Book* 203 ]
[ 3/93 Schlesinger *Risk of Ruin *BJF 5 ]
[ 9/93 Leib *What’s a Kelly Man to Do? *BJF 31 ]

Kelly, John Larry, Jr. (July 7, 1923 – July 15, 1965)* A scientist who worked at Bell Labs and best known for formulating the **Kelly Criterion**, a formula to determine what proportion of wealth to risk in a sequence of positive expected value bets to maximize the rate of return. * Grave headstone shows “Sr” ???

[ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Larry_Kelly_Jr. ]
[ billiongraves.com/grave/John-L-Kelly/10568750 ]

**keno tickets**. Where many blackjack experts (and authors) jot down notes about game conditions and dealer/casino information. When playing blackjack, it is a nice touch to have a few keno ticket receipts sticking out of your top pocket 🙂

**key card(s)**. A reference to a card or group of cards that are memorized with the hope that they will reappear after the shuffle. Used in **ace location** and **sequencing** strategies. The term “**false key**(s)” refers to a card or groups of cards that are falsely identified as key cards. See **kiss**.

**key card concept**. See **Sklansky Key Card Concept**.

**king**. (K). One of four 10-valued cards in a standard deck of playing cards. If a player knows he will receive a 10-valued card he has an advantage of about 14% or so.

[ 888casino.com/blog/blackjack-tips/blackjack-an-ace-or-ten-in-the-hand ]

**King’s Bounty**. (KB) A blackjack side bet from Bally Technologies. According to their literature:

*… a side bet that pays when a player’s first two cards total 20. To play, players make a standard blackjack wager and the King’s B*

*ounty side bet. The dealer will deal blackjack according to house procedures. Players will win the King’s Bounty side bet if their first two cards add up to 20. The top award occurs when a player has two Kings of Spades and the dealer has blackjack.*Other variations of this side bet include

*King’s Bounty Dealer Envy*and

*King’s Bounty Deluxe*. Typical payoffs are: 4/6/9/20/30/100/1000 for any 20 / KK / suited 20 / matched 20 / suited KK / KsKs / KsKs and dealer blackjack.

[

*Current Blackjack News*]

**kiss**. 1) Keep It Simple Stupid or 2) An example of a mnemonic for the King of Spades. Mnemonics are often used as an aid in remembering **key cards** when **Ace sequencing**.

[ 2) en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mnemonic ]

* KISS 1*. {PCS/L1} (c2003) (

**Fred Renzey**). An unbalanced card counting system that supposedly simplifies things by “omitting” 50% of the cards from the count. Discussed in Renzey’s book

**. Note that this is a unique “suit aware” count that only counts half of the 2s (either black or red) and ignores the Tens.**

*Blackjack Bluebook II*[ 2010 Wattenberger

*Modern Blackjack*182 ]

**A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 T J Q K 0 0/1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 -1 -1 -1 **

**BC = .87 PE = .58 IC = .81**

* KISS 2*. {PCS/L1} (c2003) (

**Fred Renzey**). An unbalanced suit-aware count where the 2 is counted differently depending on the color of the suit.

[ qfit.com/cardcounting/KISS-2 ]

**A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 0 0/1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 -1**

**BC = .90 PE = .62 IC = .87 **

* KISS 3*. {PCS/L1} (c2003) (

**Fred Renzey**). An unbalanced suit-aware count where the 2 is counted differently depending on the color of the suit.

[ qfit.com/cardcounting/KISS-3/ ]

**A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -1 0/1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 -1**

**BC = .97 PE = .56 IC = .78 **

Knowlton, Brett. Former player / manager for the **MIT** and **Greek** Blackjack Teams. Brett has a B.S. in Engineering Sciences from Harvard University and a PhD from MIT in Materials Science.

[ aleaconsultinggroup.com/brett-knowlton/ ]

* Knock-Out Blackjack*. (KO) {PCS/L1} (1996) (

**Olaf Vancura**and

**Ken Fuchs**) A very popular unbalanced card counting system.

**More info**. See

**REKO**. See

**TKO**. See

**T-H Card Counting System(s)**.

[ 98 Vancurra/Fuchs

*Knock-Out Blackjack*]

[ qfit.com/cardcounting/K-O/ ]

[ AMAZON: Knock-Out Blackjack ]

**A 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 -1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 -1**

**BC = .98 PE = .55 IC = .78**

**KO**. Acronym for **Knock-Out Blackjack**.

**Krigman, Alan**. (19?? – Oct 2013) A syndicated gaming columnist and publisher of the * Winning Ways* newsletter, a monthly newsletter. His columns focused on gambling probability and statistics. He passed away in October, 2013.

[

**kurtosis**. A measure of how “fat” a probability distribution’s tails are, measured relative to a normal distribution having the same **standard deviation**. A distribution is said to be leptokurtic if its tails are fatter than those of a corresponding normal distribution. It is said to be platykurtic if its tails are thinner than those of the normal distribution.

[ ~~contingencyanalysis.com/glossarykurtosis.htm~~ ]
[ Graphic: Courtesty of Contingency Analysis ]

Kusyszyn, Igor. See **Lance Humble**.

Footnotes

1. | ↑ | A standard deviation of 1.15 is based on a blackjack game with liberal rules. If the rules are not so generous the SD can be as low as 1.10 or so. |